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Powered by WPeMatico. What a fascinating slice of history and what detective work to piece their story back together! Feb 23, J. Hushour rated it liked it · review of another edition. This book documents their "hidden history" in the Ottoman Empire where they were largely allowed to live however they wanted. Insular, endogamous, and religiously ambiguous, once the CUP era rolled around and racialist shit started to go down, they came to the fore and were subjected to a myriad different manifestations of that old "Jews control the world" trope.
Except this time they pulling the The donme were followers of Rabbi Shabbatai Tzevi who converted from Judaism to Islam in the s. Except this time they pulling the strings in Anatolia. Baer addresses these stupid ideas and discusses the trials and tribulations of identity formation after Lausanne in Turkey and the population exchanges with Greece most donme lived in Salonika. A decent work, incredibly specific and niche-y. Jan 19, Chet rated it it was amazing · review of another edition Shelves: usa.
Awesome book that gives a full look inside this sect. Too bad it ends at World War 2.
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Feb 06, Steve Cran rated it really liked it · review of another edition. In the Thracian city of Edirne , a want to be messiah is given a choice, conversion or death. Seems harsh but considering that Sabbtai Tzvi was talking of over taking the Sultan then the penalty seems rather reasonable. The Jewish messiah converted.
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His followers were in disarray and of those he had many. The mainstream Jewish establishment opposed him for his heretical views and changes to the Jewish religion. Some Jewish followers returned to the fold. Others converted along with him. Some c In the Thracian city of Edirne , a want to be messiah is given a choice, conversion or death. Some completely left the fold. Many Ottoman Jews were of Spanish Descent so converting to another religion was deemed an acceptable way to save your life.
Those Jews who converted to Islam and secretly followed his teaching were called the Donme. Outwardly they were Muslims but in private they followed Shanbtai Tvi's teaching in secret. For two hundred plus years the Donme had a twisting and turning history in Turkey. Alienated from other Jews and quasi excepted by Turkish Muslims the Donmeh were able to carve out a niche for themselves. There were three sects of Donme. The kapnanci, Karakas and Yakubi. The first two groups of Dinmeh allied themselves with certain school of Sufi Islam.
The Kapansi were allied with the Bektashi school. The second Karakas was allied to the Mevlevi school.
The Yakubi were unaligned. The Dinme kept themselves apart from everyone else in the Ottoman Empire. They married amongst themselves, went to their own schools, built their own mosques, had their own graveyards and neighborhoods. The different groups did not even mix with the other groups of Donme. The Karrakas group openef the Tarraki school. The Kapanci opened their own school called something like Teriket. The schools taught a progressive curriculum of European languages and business acumen. They also taught morals and the values of hard work.
Each group of Dinmeh lived in their own neighborhood.
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Their style was rich and some what different then the rest of the Turks. Many of the houses were interconnected with underground tunnels. This served for rituals , secret meetings and safety. The Dinme were not recognized as having their own millet. They were considered Muslims albeit with some suspicion as to how sincere they were. The Dinme had their own mosque with their own variation on Jewish practice and Muslim practice. They also had their own communal leader complete with their own laws and jails.
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The Turks frowned on such autonomy. The Dinme became part of Ottoman society , even rising I to high positions of government. They were also successful business people, often times importing tobacco and timber. The Donme were also well travelled.
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Their main city of habitation was in Salonica , located on the Grecian part of the Ottoman Empire. In change was in the air. Many Donme played an active role in Young Turks and their reform. So did the Sufis and the Masons. Many Donme were Masons.
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The Masons took an active role in helping the Young Turks come to power. It was during this time that serious suspicions fell upon the Donmeh. The Islamist accused them of promoting immorality and undermining the spirit of Islam. The secularist felt they were not genuine Turks and were trying to undermine the Turkish nation World War I would bring profound changes for all Ottoman citizens. Armenians and Greeks were massacred. The treaty of Lausanne innaygurated a swap of populations between Greece and Turkey. Muslims to Turkey and Christians to Greece.
It was not easy for newcomer and neither side really trusted the Dinme. People were short changed on property exchanged and new comers with different customs were not always welcome with open arm. The World War II years brought even more negative change. Being Turkish was a racial category. Jews, Donme , Armenian , and Christians were given a wealth tax and forced into conscripted labor. In the end the Dinme were forced to assimilate. Aug 01, Jeffrey rated it really liked it · review of another edition.
Historian spend a lot of time developing trees on which to hang their ideas. This is fine to some extent, because good historians also find obscure subjects for their dissertations that explore the muddy boundaries. This poorly surveyed terrain is what interests me and I hope would interest you, too. In our world, where DAESH doesn't just reject Shia Islam but makes it punishable by death, it's hard to imagine there was a time when Islam didn't just tolerate but allowed its heterogeneous sects to Historian spend a lot of time developing trees on which to hang their ideas.
In our world, where DAESH doesn't just reject Shia Islam but makes it punishable by death, it's hard to imagine there was a time when Islam didn't just tolerate but allowed its heterogeneous sects to flourish. For its many faults and brutality, the Ottoman Empire was very tolerant of minority sects, the followers of Tarikats and Sufi orders that did not conform at least in part to the Sunni tradition.
This then is strange story of the Dönme, how they began and ended. They were followers of Shabbatai Tzevi, a man that claimed to be the Jewish Messiah. When confronted with the choice of death or conversion, he chose to convert, and was followed into Islam by some Jewish families. For over two hundred years, until the end of the 19th Century, these followers of Tzevi were considered Islamic without question, though they practiced endogamous marriages to their cousins, followed the 18 commandments of Tzevi, and seem to have retained at least some Jewish traditions, often by mixing Kabbalistic and Sufi beliefs.
That such a syncretic form of Islam hasn't been able to survive the demands of the ethnic, religious nation state is no surprise; the striving for purity of ethnic identity and religious beliefs fosters a conformity that such a complex identity cannot survive. Much like the daily destructon of bio-diversity, human tolerance seems to shrink every day. This is yet another cautionary tale about the pursuit of that intolerant genetic and social goal we call purity.
Baer's book is quite readable and incredibly well researched. I've stopped giving out many five star reviews because, in my opinion, having a well research tale isn't enough. The writing must also be exceptional, and Baer's book offers the reader very good but not exceptional prose. Nevertheless, as a one-time resident of Istanbul who has know people who had at least one parent from a Dönme background, I was struck but the great research that Baer has done. If you want to read about how this sect started, go to Gershom Scholem's scholarly book On Sabbatai Şevi.
If you want an easier read about roughly the same period of the Dönme, read John Freely's book.
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But if you want a grand overview of the Döndme in the late 19th and early 20th century, when any number of Dönme were extremely influential members of the Committee for Union and Process, this is where you must look. If you want to find out how, after being accepted as Islamic for two centuries, they were suddenly looked at once again as being Jewish, to their detriment, this is the place to look. Feb 18, Ainaten rated it really liked it · review of another edition Shelves: shades-of-my-thesis.