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Smart technology is one aspect of this transformation in the energy system while the use of digital platforms like blockchain is the other. Based on the above, in this fast-changing reality, it is crucial for all the areas of science that are each time related, to adapt to these developments.

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Blockchain is an example of how scientists from different areas IT, economics, engineering and law are jointly working on a new digital platform that is of great usefulness to transactions. Especially in energy, blockchain could bridge the gap between the energy system as we know it today and an ecofriendly, liberalised market. Combined with smart technology, it could also contribute to the balancing between demand and supply. However, the application of blockchain has caused serious legal concerns, mainly in the field of smart contacts and personal data protection, which will be analysed below.

What is Blockchain and how it works Blockchains are a much-discussed technological innovation that, according to some, promises to inaugurate a new era of data storage and codeexecution, which could in turn stimulate new business models and markets. We could define blockchain as a tamper-resistant decentralised and distributed ledger where new information can be entered permanently and verifiably.

This ledger can be understood as shared and synchronised digital database that is stored on multiple nodes i. This network of nodes is called peer-to-peer P2P network. Each block contains information about a transaction, an agreement etc and is then added to the existent chain of blocks through a hashing process. Adding new blocks to the chain requires each node needs to be informed about the new information and then verify its validity.

Since the majority of the nodes approves the new data, a new block is added to the chain. It is also obvious that deleting a block is almost impossible as it would change the recorded history and break the flux. This is what makes blockchain a tamper-evident system. In the first ones, anyone can participate and have a copy of the ledger as there are no identity restrictions for participation. Transparency is an important feature of this type of blockchain while on the other hand its privacy is minimised.

In private and permissioned blockchains, an administrator needs to grant permission to actors wanting to maintain a node. We could describe the way blockchain works in a simple example;5 A wants to send money to B. The transaction is represented online as a block. The block is broadcasted to every party in the network. The majority of those approves the transaction as valid. The block then can be added to the chain, which provides and indelible and transparent record of transactions.

The money moves from A to B. Blockchain applications in the energy sector The main positive outcomes of the application of blockchain in energy could be; a the integration of prosumers in the energy market, b the flexibility of the power grid and c the promotion of RES. Integrating prosumers in the energy market Today, electricity which is not self-consumed is remunerated according to different national support schemes or compensation mechanisms according to EU law6.

However, none of these schemes enables direct transactions while prosumers are still dependent on their electricity supplier. Blockchain could turn prosumers into active and independent market participants as they could sell and feed to the grid their excess amounts of electricity directly. An energy blockchain may be considered as a distributed ledger dedicated to the management of energy transactions between generation and load nodes across power systems.

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Through a smart metering system and a mobile application, participants access the local energy marketplace - a data platform developed through blockchain technology - On this platform, prosumers - generating energy through their own renewable resource - can transact energy autonomously in near-real time with consumers on the platform in their local marketplace. Sanseverino, E. Ippolito, M. Silvestre, M. For a local producer of renewable energy, this could mean that they can trade energy with others in their communities more quickly and effectively.

Achieving flexibility of the power system and fostering of RES Moreover, it is proved that blockchain technology can contribute to the flexibility and stability of the grid. TenneT - a transmission system operator TSO in Europe - together with sonnen Group - a leading manufacturer of intelligent power storage solutions - have completed a pilot project, which was launched in The project is about how decentralised home storage batteries that are networked via a blockchain and integrated in the energy supply system can stabilise the power grid.

If TenneT accepted one of these automatically generated offers, the sonnen batteries were charged with surplus energy in a region where, for instance, there was too much wind energy.

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To main equilibrium, other sonnen batteries simultaneously discharged the same amount of energy in a region where it was actually required. However, existent technology on energy storage could contribute to achieving a bigger share of RES without energy insecurity. These objectives are also established in the Article of the TFEU, which constitutes the legal basis of the energy policy in Europe.

When combined with blockchain technology, smart contracts can also be used in distributed ledgers and, thus, cover a wider range of transactions. They are based on a system of conditions and time limits that determine the existence of a payment obligation by a contracting party, the exact amount that must be paid or the possible penalties.

From a legal perspective, the main promise of smart contracts contrary to traditional ones is to automate the execution of agreements and, in case of blockchain, this can be done without the need for a central authority or an. Diestelmeier, L. Energy Policy, , p.

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These contracts are executed when the condition of death of the deceased is met, crediting the bank accounts of the heirs with the inheritance amount. In scholarship, smart contracts are divided into two distinct categories: those whose enforcement is automated while the conclusion of the contract is done in a traditional way, and those concluded and enforced in a smart way. At the moment, the majority of smart contracts would fall within the first category, but it is expected that the proportions will change with the further development of the smart contract technology.

However, this could also lead to further risks because in each jurisdiction different requirements are provided and thus smart contracts are not recognisable and enforceable in all countries. Theodorakis, G. Kalogerakis, op. There is a risk that transactions performed by an organization could fall under every jurisdiction in which a node in the blockchain network is situated, resulting in an overwhelming number of laws and regulations that might apply to transactions in a blockchain based system.

The co-existence of a multitude of different national legal regimes in the EU may make it difficult to determine questions of jurisdiction and applicable law, which in turn could be seen as a risk of fragmentation in the Digital Single Market. However, EU law already has specific legal frameworks designed to deal with related consequences such as the Rome I and Brussels I regimes. It is not apparent that smart contracts generate any novel problems in this respect that would require a bespoke regulatory response. For this reason, changes in the history of the stored data is impossible to be made.

In case that a transaction -as for example the sale of electricity between two parties- is formed in a smart contract via a blockchain platform, a problem occurs when this transaction needs to be overturned on grounds of a specific reason such as unconscionability or in the event of withdrawal. In fact, smart contracts seem to be less flexible than classic legal contracts as they do not allow the parties to renegotiate and change the terms of the agreement.

The fact that a legal transaction cannot be overturned through actus contrarius could be Study on Blockchains - op. The Greek Civil Code considers this rule as a special case of a legal transaction contra bonos mores Art. The only solution to the aforementioned problem could be a reverse transaction. Yet also in this case we have to take into account that third parties who had access to the public ledger have trusted the recorded data in good faith and, thus, it is necessary to be protected.

Data protection What is more, there has been a lot of debate about smart meters and data protection. The monitoring of the energy consumed can help to increase the efficiency and safety of electricity distribution, but also allows those who have access to the data to draw conclusions about the behaviour of energy consumers which may have an impact on personal data and privacy. For this reason, the EU has taken a series of measures to uphold data protection rules.

One example is the impact assessment template19 updated by the Smart grids task force in September , and which serves as guidance on data protection and privacy for data controllers and investors in smart grids. Blockchain and the General Data Protection Regulation. Blockchains, however, are distributed databases that often seek to achieve decentralisation by replacing a unitary actor with many different players.

The lack of consensus as to how joint- controllership ought to be defined hampers the allocation of responsibility and accountability.


Blockchains, however, render the unilateral modification of data purposefully onerous in order to ensure data integrity and to increase trust in the network. Secondly, it is impossible to state that blockchains are, as a whole, either completely compliant or incompliant with the GDPR. Rather, only concrete use case needs to be examined on the basis of a detailed case-by-case analysis. Thirdly, there is still legal uncertainty pertaining to numerous concepts of the GDPR which makes it hard to determine how the latter should apply to blockchain.

As far as EU law is concerned, the field of personal data is still under development and strong developments are expected - especially in the context of Blockchain technology.

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The ultimate protection of personal data can hamper the development of blockchain technology while the GDPR was not drafted with the concept of decentrlised systems in mind. This is what makes further legislative intervention of vital importance. Μέσα στην δεκαετία του , η Ψηφιακή Επανάσταση τοποθετείται ως μια νέα ψηφίδα στο μωσαϊκό των επαναστάσεων που οικοδόμησαν τη λεωφόρο της ιστορίας του ανθρώπου. Αυτή τη φορά, στο ρόλο των στασιαστών πρωταγωνιστούν μηχανικοί, οι οποίοι κατορθώνουν να εγκαταστήσουν την αυθεντία των Μεγάλων Δεδομένων και των αλγορίθμων. Η επανάσταση αυτή, διαφορετικής φύσεως από τις υπόλοιπες, δεν διενεργείται με κύριο μέσο τα εργαλεία που κατασκεύασε ο άνθρωπος, ούτε εξελίσσεται μέσω των κινημάτων και των διαδηλώσεων στα οποία αυτός συμμετέχει.

Η εξέγερση χρησιμοποιεί την Google, την Amazon, το Facebook για την επιτυχή έκβασή της, γεννώντας παράλληλα μία από τις μεγαλύτερες προκλήσεις που έχει αντιμετωπίσει ποτέ ο -διαδικτυακός- κόσμος. Έκτοτε, διανύουμε την εποχή της Πληροφορίας. Μια εποχή, που στην επικαιροποιημένη εκδοχή της, κατακλύζεται από πληροφορίες που μόνο ένας υπολογιστής θα είχε την «υπολογιστική δύναμη» να μετρήσει, μια εποχή στην οποία τα «ψηφιακά-προσωπικά δεδομένα μας αποτελούν μικροσκοπικά κυκλώματα μέσα σε ένα γιγάντιο σύστημα επεξεργασίας δεδομένων που κανείς δεν το κατανοεί πραγματικά»1. Πράγματι, όντας, οι περισσότεροι, χρήστες του Facebook, του Twitter και του Instagram και, ταυτοχρόνως, θύματα της παγκόσμιας επιδημίας που κάνει το ενδιαφέρον μας να εστιάσει περισσότερο στο τι συμβαίνει στον κυβερνοχώρο, παρά στο χώρο όπου έχουμε πρόσβαση χωρίς σύνδεση στο Internet, σπεύδουμε να αποτυπώσουμε στην κάμερα του κινητού μας και, στη συνέχεια, να δημοσιεύουμε το απρόσμενο ή υποθετικά ανταποκρινόμενο Yuval Noah Harari, «21 μαθήματα για τον 21ο αιώνα», σ.

Με τον τρόπο αυτό, αφήνουμε τα ψηφιακά μας ίχνη, τα οποία αποθηκεύονται και επεξεργάζονται δίχως να το αντιλαμβανόμαστε.

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Φυσικά, η επιλογή αυτή απορρέει ευθέως από το συνταγματικά κατοχυρωμένο δικαίωμα της ελεύθερης ανάπτυξης της προσωπικότητας άρθρο 5. Η ταχεία και απλουστευμένη εκδοχή ανταλλαγής μηνυμάτων, καθώς και η νέα δυνατότητα να δείχνουμε τα άλμπουμ με τις φωτογραφίες μας και στους επισκέπτες του προφίλ μας στα social media, και όχι μόνο σε αυτούς που επισκέπτονται το σπίτι μας, συνιστούν ορισμένες από τις ιδιαιτερότητες της κοινωνίας της πληροφορίας. Σύμφωνα με τα άρθρα επ. ΚΠολΔ, αποδεικτικό μέσο ενώπιον των πολιτικών Δικαστηρίων αποτελούν τα ιδιωτικά έγγραφα.

Ως ορισμός για τον προσδιορισμό της έννοιας αυτών επιλέγεται στη θεωρία εκείνος υπό την αφαιρετική μορφή του ότι «ιδιωτικό έγγραφο ορίζεται ως αυτό που δεν είναι δημόσιο»2. Με το ν. Επακόλουθα, όσον αφορά στα ανακύπτοντα ζητήματα γνησιότητας, αποδεικτικής τους δύναμης κλπ.

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Συνάγεται, έτσι, ως συμπέρασμα ότι αν και απεγχαρτωμένης μορφής, κάθε φωτογραφία ή διαδικτυακή συνομιλία μας δύναται να συνιστά μέσο σχηματισμού δικανικής κρίσης του πολιτικού Δικαστή υπό τον μανδύα των ιδιωτικών εγγράφων. Παρά ταύτα, η κατάφασή τους ως ιδιωτικά έγγραφα δεν συνεπάγεται δίχως άλλο τη δυνατότητα δικονομικής χρήσης και προσκόμισής τους στο Δικαστήριο κατά το δίκαιο της αποδείξεως. Αυτά θα συμπεριληφθούν στο αποδεικτικό και υπαγωγικό σκέλος της απόφασης, και, περαιτέρω, θα ασκήσουν επιρροή στη νομική κρίση του Δικαστή μόνο εάν δεν διαγνωσθούν ως παρανόμως κτηθέντα αποδεικτικά μέσα.

Κριθέντα ως αντιτιθέμενα «στο άρθρο Πιο συγκεκριμένα, το Σύνταγμα, με το άρθρο Στην παρ. Επιπροσθέτως, θεμελιώδες είναι και το άρθρο 2.